Bibliography

References:

Banerjee, S. (1999).  Heavy metal in wastewater ponds in and around Calcutta and their effect on Mammalian System contaminated through fish raised in wastewater improvement, Annual report (1998-1999), Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta.

This paper provides information about the heavy metals present,  in wastewater ponds ,  in and around Calcutta, and its impact on the fish, animals and birds and the global pollution.

Barbier, E.B., Acreman, M., and Knowler, D. (1997).  Economic valuation of wetlands – A

guide for policy makers and planners, Ramsar Copnvention Bureau, Gland, Switzerland.

 

Biswas, K. P. (1927). ‘Flora of the Salt Lakes, Calcutta’, Journal of Department of Science, University of Calcutta, vol. 8.

 

Bose, B.C. (1944). ‘Calcutta sewage-fisheries culture’, Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci., India, 10.

 

Brown, L. R. (2001).  Eco-Economy-Building an Economy for the Earth, Earthscan, London.

 

Chakraborty, S. (1970). ‘Some consideration on the evolution of physiography of Bengal’, in A. B. Chatterjee, A. Gupta, and P. K. Mukhopadhyay (eds.), West Bengal, Geographical  Institute, Presidency College, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, Calcutta, India.

 

Clarke, W. (1865). ‘Report of the project of The Salt Lake Reclamation & Irrigation Company Limited’, in Selections from the Records of the Bengal Government (containing papers from 1865-1904), Calcutta, India.

 

CMG (1945). ‘Some facts about Calcutta drainage’, in A. Home (ed.), The Calcutta Municipal Gazette: Official organ of the Corporation, Central Municipal Office, Calcutta, India, 42(7).

 

______ (1964). ‘Reclamation of Salt Lakes – Dr. B. C. Roy’s dream’ in A. Home (ed.),  The Calcutta Municipal Gazette: Official organ of the Corporation of Calcutta, Central Municipal Office, Calcutta, India, 81(6&7).

CMW&SA (1996). Sustaining Calcutta, Present Status Report of the Urban People’s Environment, Calcutta Metropolitan Water and Sanitation Authority, Kolkata.

 

____ (1997). Base line document for management action plan, East Calcutta Wetlands and Waste Recycling Region, Calcutta Metropolitan Water and Sanitation Authority, Kolkata.

 

Cook, C.D.K. (1996). Aquatic and Wetlands Plants of India. Oxford University Press.

 

Costanza, R., d’Agre, R.,m Groot, R. de, Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limbujrg, K., Naeem, S.O., Neill, R. V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R. G., Sutton P., and Belt, M. van den (1997).’The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital’, Nature, vol. 387.

 

Dasgupta, R. (1973). ‘Contribution of botany of a portion of Salt Lakes, West Bengal’, Ind.Mus. Bull., vol. 1.

 

David, A. (1959). ‘Effect of Calcutta sewage upon the fisheries of the Kulti estuary and connected cultivable fisheries’, Journal of Asiatic Society (Bengal), vol. 1, No. 4.

 

De, M., Bhunia, S., and Sengupta, T. (1989). ‘A preliminary account of major wetland fauna of Calcutta and surroundings’, Ecology, 3(9).

 

Deb, S. C., and Santra, S. C. (1996). ‘Bio-accumulation of metals in sewage fed aquatic system – a case study from Calcutta (India)’, International Journal of Environmental Studies.

 

Deb, S. C., Das, K. K. , and Santra, S. C. (1996). ‘Studies on the productivity of sewage-fed  ecosystem’, Journal of Environmental Protection, 12.

 

DEC a (1945). ‘History of the Gangetic Delta, Appendix 1 a’, Report of the committee to inquire into the drainage conditions of Calcutta and adjoining area, Drainage Enquiry   Committee, Government of Bengal, Calcutta, India.

 

____b (1945). ‘Draionage (rural) of the area falling with the outer zone, which is to be  investigated by the Calcutta Drainage Committee, Appendix IX’, Reports of the committee to  inquire into the drainage condition of Calcutta and adjoining area, Drainage Enquiry  Committee, Government of Bengal, Calcutta, India.

 

DOE (1999). Development and Management of the Calcutta canal systems and wetlands, Report of the committee constituted by the Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal.

 

____ (2001). Report of the committee to look into all aspects of the existing and permissible land uses in the East Kolkata Wetland Area, Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal.

_____ (2004)Report of the committee for formulation  of the guidelines for preparation of management plan of East Kolkata Wetland, Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal.

Department of Fisheries (1983). Report on study of heavy metal in sewage-fed fisheries,

Department of Fisheries, Government of West Bengal.

 

Douglas, J. S. (1972). Beginner’s guide to applied ecology, Pelham Books, London.

 

Ekins, P. (1972). Beginner’s guide to applied ecology, Pelham Books, London.

 

Ekins, P. (1992). A New World Order, Grassroot Movement for global change, Routledge,

London.

 

Farber, S., and Costanza, R. (1987).  ‘The economic value of wetland systems’, Journal of Environmental Management, 24.

 

Ghosh, S. K., and Ghosh, D. (2003). Rehabilitating Biodiversity: A community-based initiativew in the East Calcutta Wetlands, A Communiqué published through WWF-India (W.B.S.O.), in collaboration with British Council Division, Kolkata.

 

Ghosh, D., and Furedy, C. (1984). ‘Resource Conserving Traditions and Waste Disposal: The Garbage Farms and Sewage-fed Fisheries of Calcutta’, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 7, No. 2-4.

This paper points out the fact that in spite of its many waste disposal problems Calcutta is foremost among South Asian cities in the productive use of wastes. Natural processes and informal practices on the metropolitan fringe contribute significantly to waste treatment and promote recycling. The disposal/recycling system that has developed over a century operates with a minimum of technology and engineering. The nineteenth century origins of the garbage farms and sewage fed fisheries are sketched and the importance of the use of sewage and garbage in food production is assessed. The effects of encroaching urbanization on the wetlands are noted. The paper argues the need for research and discussion of development alternatives for Asian metropolitan fringe areas.

 

Ghosh, D., and Sen, S. (1987). ‘Ecological History of Calcutta’s Wetland Conservation’, Environmental Conservation, vol. 14(3).

This paper provides information about buffer strips, which can greatly enhance the water quality of nearby agricultural streams , by reducung nutrientsleaching in ground water and surface water run off. Besides, buffer strips also brea kt the monoculture landscape and increases the diversity by increasing flora nd fauna.

______(1992). ‘Developing Waterlogged Areas for Urban Fishery and Waterfront Recreation Project’, AMBIO, Journal of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, vol. 21, No. 2.

 

Ghosh, D. (1978). Ecological Study of Some selected Urban and Semi-urban Centers of West Bengal and suggesting certain controls of the Ecosystem, Ph. D. thesis, University of Calcutta.

 

____ (1983). Sewage treatment fisheries in East Calcutta Wetlands, mimeographed, (not available for checking), Reports to the Department of Fisheries, Government of West Bengal, Calcutta, India.

 

____ (1992). ‘The ecologically handicapped’, The Statesman, March 12.

 

____ (1996). Turning around: for a community based technology. Calcutta Environment improvement, CMW&SA.

 

(1999). ‘Rebellion of Nature and Need for a Global Convention on Consumption Imbalance’, Journal of Indian Anthropological Society, 34.

 

____(2001). ‘Empowering the Ecologically Handicapped; in V. G. Martin and M. A. Parthasarathy (eds.), Wilderness and Humanity: the Global Issues, Flcrum Publishing, Golden, Colorado.

 

Ghosh, S. K. (2002). Reclamation and enhancement of biodiversity of the East Calcutta Wetlands, Project report prepared for British Council, Calcutta, implemented through WWF- India, West Bengal State Office.

 

____ (2002) Wetland Ecosystem, West Bengal State Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal and Ramkrishna Mission Narendrapur, West Bengal, India, executed by  Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India, technical implementation by Kalpavrissh and administrative co-ordination by Biotech Consortium, India Ltd., funded by Global Environmental Facility through UNDP.

 

Ghosh, S. K., and Ghosh D. (2003). ‘Community based rehabilitation of wetlands in WestBengal, India’, in S. B. Ray et al. (ed.), Contemporary Studies in Natural resourceManagement in India, Forest Studies Series, Inter-India Publication, New Delhi.

 

Ghosh, S./ K., and Mitra, A. (1997). Flora and Fauna of East Calcutta Wetlands, Project report of Creative Research Group, East Calcutta Wetlands and Waste Recycling (Primary data), Environmental Improvement Programme, Calcutta Metropolitan Water and Sanitation Authority.

 

Ghosh, S. K., and Santra, S.C. (1996). ‘Domestic and Municipal Wastewater Treatment by Some Common Tropical Aquatic Macrophytes’, Indian Biologist. vol 28 (1).

 

____ (1997). ‘Economic benefits of wetland vegetation for rural population in West Bengal India’, in W. Giesen (ed), Wetland Biodiversity and Development, proceedings of workshop of the International Conference on Wetland and Development, held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9-13 October 1995.  Wetlands International Kuala Lumpur.

 

Good R.E., Whigham, D. F., and Simpson, R.L.(1978). (eds.) Freshwater Wetlands, Ecological Processes and Management Potential, Academic Press, New York.

This tells us about fresh water wetlands and the ecosystem there.

Holling, C. S., Schindler, D.W., Walker, B.W., and Roughgarden, J.(1955). ‘Biodiversity in the functioning of the ecosystem, an ecological synthesis’, in Parings et al (eds.), Biodiversity Loss, Economic and Ecological issues, Cambridge University Press.

This book mentions about the biodiversity in the functioning of n ecosystem.

Institute for Wetland Management and Ecological Design (1997).  A study on the status of sewage of Calcutta as carrier of pollutants, nutrients and sediments, Report submitted to the West Bengal Pollution Control Board, Calcutta.

This report reflects on the great value of the East Kolkata Wetland and mentions that how it is deteriorating because of the increase in urbanization. It mentions about the importance fo preparing an comprehensive and integrated plan in order to preserve it. The paper reformulates the principle of saving people to save the wetland.

 

ISI (2001). Report on Environmental Conservation and Valuation of East Calcutta Wetlands 999-2000, World Bank aided ‘India Environmental Capacity Building’ Technical Assistance Project.

 

Irrigation and Waterways Directorate (1959).  Final Report of the West Bengal Flood Enquiry ommittee, Government of West Bengal, Irrigation and Waterways Department, Calcutta.

 

Jana, B. B., Banerjee, R. D., Guterstam, B., and Heeb, J. (2000). (eds.) Waste recycling and resource management in the developing world, University of Kalyani.

 

Kolstad, C. D., and Guzman, R. (1999). ‘Information and the divergence between willingness- to-pay’,Environ.Econ.Mgmt.

 

Kormondy, E.J.(1974). Concepts of Ecology, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.

 

Larson, J.S. (1976). (ed.). Models for Assessment of Freshwater Wetlands, Water Resources Research Centre, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA. publication no. 32, completion report FY 76-5.

 

Maltby, E.(1986). Waterlogged Wealth, International Institute of Environment and Development, Earthscan, London.

 

Misra, A.(1993). Aj Bhi Khare Hai Talab, Paryavayaran Kaksh, Gandhi Santi Pratisthan,New Delhi.

This provides information about the importance of the wetlands in the present era, in the Indian context.

Mitchell, B.(1979). Geography and Resource Analysis, Longman, London.

 

Mitsch. W.J., and Gosselink, J. G. (1986). Wetlands, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Newyork

From ere information was found about how wetlands are studied and sustained in the United States.

Monkhouse, F.J., and Wilkinson, H.R.(1976). Maps and Diagrams: Their Compilation and

Construction, Methuen & Co. Ltd., London

This provides a Thematic map, that illustrates more than simply geographical relationships or locations, but rather also portrays themes, patterns, or data relating to physical, social, medical, economic, political, or any other aspect of a region or location. Examples include maps that show variations of population density, climate data, wealth, etc.Technical aspects giving map-reading keys are also included.

Mukherjee, D.P., Kumar, B., and Saha, R.(2005)  Performance of Sewage – Ponds in Treating Wastewater (unpublished report), Central Pollution Control Board, Eastern Regional Office, Kolkata.

 

NBSAP(2002). National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, West Bengal State Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal and Ramkrishna Mission Narendrapur, West Bengal, India, executed by Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India, technical implementation by Kalpavriksh and administrative co-ordination by Biotech Consortium, India Ltd., funded by Global Environmental Facility through UNDP.

 

Pal, D., and Dasgupta, C. K. (1988). ‘Interaction with fish and human pathogens’, proceedings of National Symposium on ‘Fish and Their Environment, Trivandrum.

 

Pearce D. W., and Turner R.K.(1990). Economics of natural resources and the environment, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

This covers most of the ‘main stream’ of environmental and resource economics but with greater emphasis on the theme of sustainable economic development and on alternative normative and analytical perspectives

Sachs, W. (2001). Planet Dialectics: Explorations in Environment and Development, Zed

Books, London.

Here the crisis in the world’s relation of nature and social justice is discussed. It also shows the sustainability issues – as oxymoron as rhetoric, s well as developmental issues of the contemporary society.

Sarkar, R. (2002). Valuing the ecosystem benefits of treatment of manmade wetlands using conventional economic indicators – a case study of the East Calcutta Wetlands, Occasional Papers no. 01/2002, Department of Business Management, University of Calcutta.

Here, the profitability of cultivating rice on lands irrigated by waste water in Kolkata,  was studied and it was found that lands which used untreated sewage water were more profitable. Further this report mentions that the tanneries near East Kolkata wetland have no significant negative impact on cultivation.

Schuyt, K., and Brander, L. (2004). ‘The Economic Values of World’s Wetlands’, Living

Waters, Conserving the source of life, WWF, Gland/Amsterdam.

This paper emphasizes on the importance of wetlands as the provider of numerous goods and services that have an economic value, not only to the local population living in it’s periphery, but also to the communities, living outside it. They are important supplier of food, fresh water, building material, besides providing major services like, water treatment and erosion control.

 

Scott, D. A. (1989) (ed.). A Directory of Asian Wetlands. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K.
This provides a data base of all the wetlands in the Asia Pacific zone.

 

Sewell, R. B.(1934). A study of the fauna of the Salt Lake, Calcutta. Record of the Indian Museum. 36.

Stewart. D. (1836). ‘Report on the project of The Salt Lake Reclamation & Irrigation Company Limited’, in Selection from the records of the Bengal Government, (containing papers from 1985 to 1964), Government of West Bengal, Calcutta, India.

This provides a checklist of fishes in West Bengal coast, consisting of 168 species of fish, belonging to 68 different families.

Trisal, C. L., and Zutshi, D. P. (1985). ‘Ecology and Management of Wetland Ecosystems in India’, Paper presented at the Regional Meeting of the National MAB Committee of Central and South Asian Countries, New Delhi.

This provides information about what are wetlands, how wetlands can be identified, wetlands in India, The status of in Indian wetlands, etc.

Turner, R. K., and Bateman, I. J. (1995). ‘Wetland Valuation: three case studies’, in Perring et al (eds.), Biodiversity loss, economic and ecological issues, Cambridge University Press.

Here the significance and value of wetlands in relation to the valuation studies and to a sustainable use of natural capital is discussed.

 

 

UNESCO (2000). Science for the twenty-first century, a new commitment, World Conference on Science.

Here attempt has been made to bridge the gap between science and society. Here bottom-up approaches has been encouraged. It also aims to attract greater funding for greener causes.

 

United Nations Development Programme (1998), Human Development Report 1998, Oxford University Press, New York.

These report marshals environmental, developmental, technological and moral arguments to present a critique of consumption patterns that are inimical to human development, and an agenda for action to create an enabling environment for sustainable consumption of human development.

 

WCED (1987). Our Common Future, World Comkmission on Environment and Development Oxford

University Press, Oxford.

This was prepared by United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) and deals with sustainable development. This report sought to recapture the spirit of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment – the Stockholm Conference – which had introduced environmental concerns to the formal political development sphere.

 

World Wide Fund for Nature (1993). Directory of Indian Wetlands.
This provided information about various wetlands in India, along with providing an overview of the use of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools in flood zone mapping, in monitoring cropping patterns and irrigation, water quality analysis and modeling.